Articoli su riviste accademiche / Journal articles


Bellofiore Riccardo, Vertova Giovanna (2014), “Crisi del welfare e crisi del lavoro, dal fordismo alla Grande Recessione: un’ottica di classe e di genere”, Rivista delle Politiche Sociali, n. 1, pp. 103-122.


Vertova Giovanna (2013), “Crisi e donne in Italia”, Nuova Secondaria, vol. 30, n. 7, pp. 41-43.


Tylecote Andrew, Vertova Giovanna (2007), “Technology and institutions in changing specialization: chemicals and motor vehicles in the United States, United Kingdom and Germany”, Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 16, n. 5, pp. 875-911.

Abstract: There were radical changes in national specialization during the 20th century: Germany’s loss of dominance—to the United States and United Kingdom—in much of the chemicals industry; the United States’ loss of dominance—partly to Germany—and the collapse of the United Kingdom, in motor vehicles. The main measures used are patenting, trade and sales. The reversal is explained in terms of changing institutional demands of the sectors as their dominant technologies changed, and of far-reaching changes in the institutions relevant to the national system of innovation.

JEL classification: O330, O500, O140


Leoncini Riccardo, Montresor Sandro, Vertova Giovanna (2006), “Dynamic capabilities between firm organization and local development: a critical survey”, Economia Politica, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 475-502.

Abstract: This paper is about the different firm’s capacity to deal with change, recently conceptualised with the notion of «dynamic capabilities». It aims at showing that, in order to understand the nature and the determinants of dynamic capabilities, a cross-disciplinary perspective is needed. This should be based on two views: an «organisational» one – based on the firm’s internal capacity to develop learning processes – and a truly «economic» one – based on interactive learning mechanisms. Indeed, a review of the vast and heterogeneous literature that refers, either explicitly or implicitly, to dynamic capabilities in explaining firms’ performance, ends up identifying a gap between organizational and environmental kinds of approaches. By identifying the crucial elements to which a theory of dynamic capabilities is expected to answer, the paper proposes two taxonomies that help in defining the main points along which a cross-disciplinary approach can be articulated.

JEL classification: D23, L22, O33


Cantwell John A., Vertova Giovanna (2004), “Historical evolution of technological diversification”, Research Policy, vol. 33, n. 3, pp. 511-529.

Abstract: A positive relationship exists between national technological size and technological diversification across fields of innovative activity. This paper shows how the nature of this relationship has changed historically. There has been a downward structural shift in the cross-country size-diversification frontier since 1965—for any given size countries have become less diversified or more narrowly concentrated in their technological specialisation. One explanation is that international technology sourcing by MNEs has led locations to focus on what they do best. A supporting factor may be a rise in technological interrelatedness, which encourages focus upon a specific selection of complementary combinations.

Keywords:  national innovation systems, technological diversification, patent statistics, internationalization of technology


Vertova Giovanna (2002), “A historical investigation of the geography of innovative activities”, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, vol. 13, n. 3, pp. 259-283.

Abstract: Research and development activities, as well as all other economic activities, do not occur in a spaceless economy, but are related to particular geographical areas. This paper investigates to what extent technological activities have a tendency to concentrate in centres of excellence or to diffuse across many countries. A framework for the identification of different technological trends is created. The main findings of this paper show the existence of four different technological trends, two of them connected to the characteristics of the national system of innovation of countries and the other two related to the particular features of technology.

JEL classification: O1, O3, O57

Keywords: evolutionary theory, patent, advanced countries, technological trends


Vertova Giovanna (2001), “National technological specialisation and the highest technological opportunities historically”, Technovation, vol. 21, n. 9, pp. 605-612.

Abstract: Following the New Institutional Economic approach, which states that shift in technological opportunities along particular trajectories is governed by paradigms or regimes, the paper investigates the prevailing technological opportunities in the last 100 years and the technological performance of some advanced countries. The statistical work of this paper identifies the countries specialized in the highest technological opportunities and attempts to give an explanation by referring to the institutional set-up of the economy. Only the country with a proper national system of innovation is likely to specialise in the highest technological opportunities. By contrast, countries with a miss-match between the institutional set-up of the economy and the prevailing technological paradigm are more likely to remain locked into inferior technological paths.

Keywords: technological paradigm, national systems of innovation, advanced countries, patents


McDonald Frank, Vertova Giovanna (2001), “Geographical concentration and competitiveness in the European Union”, European Business Review, vol. 13, n.3, pp. 157-165.

Abstract: Considers the importance of geographical and institutional factors in the development of clusters and industrial districts as a response to economic integration in the European Union (EU). Theoretical works by economists, economic geographers and organisational theorists are synthesised to provide a framework for the analysis of the emergence and/or development of the geographical concentration of firms in response to economic integration in the EU. An explanation based on competitive advantages from creating or developing geographical concentration in response to economic integration is proposed. A threefold classification is made to distinguish between different types of industrial geographical concentration – clusters, industrial districts type I, and industrial districts type II. Argues that the main difference between these three kinds of geographical concentration is attributed to the nature of their networks. Finally, the paper illustrates the importance of geographical concentrations for international business by considering a famous Italian industrial district, the ceramic tile industry in Sassuolo.

Keywords: clusters, regional development, European Union, economic integration, networks


Vertova Giovanna (1999), “Stability in national patterns of technological specialisation: some historical evidence from patent data”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, vol. 8, n. 4, pp. 331-354.

Abstract: The paper examines the evolution of technological specialisation in a group of selected countries over the period between 1890 and 1990. Technological specialization of each country is measured by the RTA (Revealed Technological Advanced) index, based on patent statistics, in four different historical periods. Following an evolutionary approach, the hypothesis of cumulativeness and of incremental change are tested with a linear cross-section regression model. The results from regression and statistical tests enable some conclusions to be drawn. Path-dependence and cumulativeness in countries’ profiles of technological specialization occurs over a 25-year period. Over longer periods, the size of countries and their ability to either specialize in some niches or broaden out the specialization across more sectors matters. Diversifying incremental change has found to be a consistent and strong phenomenon among countries, due to countries’ natural tendency to move into related technological fields.

JEL classification: O33, O57, C12

Keywords: technological specialisation, patents, evolutionary theory, advanced countries, cumulativeness, incremental change


Vertova Giovanna (1998), “Technological similarity in national styles of innovation in a historical perspective”, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, vol. 10, n. 4, pp. 437-449.

Abstract: The paper examines some issues related to different styles of innovation in some advanced countries. The statistical work carried out is an attempt to answer the question: to what extent do countries’ styles of innovation differ and how often do similarities arise? The issue of similarities/dissimilarities of countries’ styles of innovation is investigated in the last 100 years for a group of selected countries. The evidence provided is based on a US patent database held at the University of Reading and countries’ styles of innovation are measured with the use of the RTA index in four historical periods. The conclusions of the paper are consistent with the theory of national systems of innovation. Countries show very different styles of innovation and, what is more important, this difference is stable over time. However, a selected combination of similar countries occurs in every period, thus underlying the existence of regional groups. These regional groups are the only pairs of countries showing technological similarity historically.